Microplastics and Ocean Pollution

Microplastics and microbeads are tiny pieces of plastic which end up in the world’s seas and oceans, causing environmental damage and as yet unknown effects on marine creatures and the wider ecosystems which support marine life. While microplastics have been an issue for some time, the topic has received an increasing amount of attention in recent years as concern over global plastic pollution – and its impact on human health – has risen. Governments across the world are now beginning to take action to try and deal with microplastic pollution.

Plastic Pollution

Large items made out of plastic may be the most noticeable form of pollution, but the tiny pieces which they break down into may be more of a threat to the marine environment. Copyright: sablin / 123RF Stock Photo

However, with eight million tons of plastic dumped into the world’s seas and oceans every year (1) it will take a huge amount of effort and cooperation to even begin to reduce the amount of plastic pollution which is damaging the world’s marine environment. Indeed, scientists have predicted that there could be more plastic than fish in the world’s seas by the year 2050 (2).

Forms of Plastic Pollution

The different types of plastic pollution in the world’s seas and oceans generally categorised into two main types:

Microplastics: These are tiny particles of plastic ranging from 1mm across to as small as 0.0001mm in diameter. Microplastics are formed when larger pieces of waste plastic end up in the ocean. They begin to break down into smaller and smaller pieces and over time, releasing microplastics. With the amount of plastic ending up in the world’s seas every year there are major concerns over the amount of microplastic which will be released into the oceans over coming years. Indeed, the Great Pacific Garbage Patch is a collection of waste trapped in the North Pacific Ocean by currents and ocean gyres.

Great Pacific Garbage Patch

The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is bigger than previously thought.

While many people believe this is a collection of rubbish floating on the surface of the ocean the vast majority of the patch is made up of microplasitcs formed by larger items of plastic waste breaking down. In October 2016 an aerial survey found that the Great Pacific Garbage Patch was in fact several times larger than previous estimates had stated (3).


Cosmetics contain microbeads.

Microbeads: These are tiny pieces of plastic which have been used as a component in face washes, shower gels, toothpastes and a range of other cosmetic products. They are – as the name implies – tiny beads which are included as they make the products exfoliate and clean more effectively. They are washed down sinks and as they are so small they bypass filters in sewage plants and eventually end up in the sea. Research by the University of Plymouth found that a single tube of facial scrub could contain over 2.8 million individual microbeads, meaning that up to 94,500 could be released with each wash (4). Microbeads are also found in washing powders, detergents and in some household cleaning products.

Other Forms of Microplastic Pollution: There are a huge range of other forms of microplastic pollution. Clothing is a little known type with certain kinds of fleeces and jackets releasing thousands of polyester fibres when they are washed which then also end up making their way into the world’s seas and oceans (5), with the Guardian claiming that a single clothes wash can release up to 700,000 fibres into the environment (6). Cosmetic wipes are also a significant problem as they also break down into microplastics. The Sunday Times reports that 920 million cosmetic wipes are used in the UK alone every year, with 296,000 tons of them used annually in the European Union, creating another source of microplastics (7). Nurdles are plastic pellets used as the raw material in the manufacture of plastic. Due to the huge demand for plastic and plastic products billions of nurdles are shipped around the world every year, with many ending up in the sea during the manufacturing process or while they are being transported.


Plastic nurdles are found on beaches across the world.

In 2017 a survey of 279 British beaches found that 73% of beaches they looked at had plastic nurdles on them, with a 100 metre stretch of a beach in Cornwall having 127,500 nurdles present. In total an incredible 53 billion nurdles are estimated to escape into the UK environment every year (8). Nurdles are damaging to the environment as they break down into microplastics over time. They are also mistaken as food by fish and other sea creatures – something which is made even more dangerous as nurdles can absorb background chemicals which are present in the oceans. No one really knows what effects this will have on the long term health of fish which eat nurdles, or what impact it will have on people who then eat these fish. Car tyres are another form of plastic pollution, with the tiny pieces of rubber which break away every time a car is driven eventually making their way into the sea and adding to the microplastic problem.

How Do Microplastics Get Into The Sea?

Microplastics get into the sea when any kind of waste plastic (such as carrier bags, plastic packaging or plastic which has been produced as by-product of industry) gets disposed of in the ocean. This can happen when unscrupulous companies or individuals deliberately throw plastic waste into the ocean as a cheap way of disposing of it, or when rubbish and waste is not secured or stored properly and inadvertently ends up in the ocean. Once this plastic is in the sea it will very slowly begin to break down. As this happens hundreds of thousands – possibly millions – of pieces of microplastic will be released. Microbeads end up in the sea when they are washed down the sink, shower or bath.

While sewage plants can filter out a lot of harmful substances from the waste they process microbeads (and polyester fibres) are so small they simply bypass filtration and treatment systems and end up in the sea. We are using more and more products which contain plastic – plastic use has risen twenty-fold in the last fifty years (9) – meaning this is becoming an increasing serious problem.

Damage To The Marine Environment

Microplastics, microbeads and polyester fibres are undoubtedly harmful to the marine environment, although much of the damage they do has yet to be understood, and it may not be until many years in the future that we see the real impact. It has been proven that fish actually seek out plastic pollution to eat, as the decomposing chemicals in plastic give out a similar smell to natural food sources (10). In  immature fish this microbead consumption inhibits the growth of fish as the extra energy that the fish expend trying to digest the plastic also makes them slower and more docile, and therefore easier for predators to catch. Marine organisms which filter feed can also be badly affected by microplastics and microbeads, with species such as sea cucumbers having their digestive tracts blocked with microplastics and microbeads. Lugworm are a filter feeding species which may be badly affected by high levels of microplastics being found in their habitat, although exactly how lugworm will be affected is currently unknown. Some species of crabs and lobsters have been found with microplastics stuck in their gills (11).

Microplastics In The Food Chain: Impact On Humans?

There is now serious concern that there is so much plastic pollution in the seas and oceans that it is inevitable that humans will end up ingesting plastic through the fish and seafood we eat. While the larger fish humans eat may not directly eat microplastics they may accumulate microplastics in their bodies when they are immature fry, or through feeding on smaller fish which are full of microplastics. A study in the science journal Nature found that a quarter of fish and shellfish bought at markets in Indonesia and California contained plastic (12), while researchers at the University of Ghent in Belgium have calculated that people eating shellfish on a regular basis will consume 6,400 pieces of microplastic a year. A small proportion of these will accumulate in the human body and there has yet to be any substantive research carried out to understand the long-term effects this will have on human health (13).


Wetherspoons, one of the UK’s largest pub chains, has switched from plastic to recyclable paper straws.

It is not just microplastics which are an issue. Research carried out by the University of Arizona found that chemicals used in the manufacture of plastic may “may migrate into fish flesh and thus edible parts of seafood” and in accumulated concentrations they may be harmful to humans (14). Some very harmful chemicals are found in microplastics. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are chemicals found in pesticides, flame retardants and electrical insulation which are resistant to environmental degridation. While many of these have been banned since the 1970s they will remain present in sea water for decades. Once plastic ends up in the ocean these chemicals can be absorbed into microplastics which are then consumed by fish and shellfish. Research by the University of Exeter found that plastic found off the coast of Japan had chemical levels over one million times higher than that found in the surrounding sea water (15).

The issue of both microplastic and chemical ingestion in fish very much affects the UK, with the Daily Mail quoting a report which found that 30% of fish in the English Channel had some form of plastic in their bodies, and over 80% of scampi sold in the UK also contained plastic (15). Microplastic pollution is a truly global problem, with microplastics even being found frozen into arctic ice (16) and in deep sea ecosystems at depths of 6000ft (1820 metres) (17).

What Are The Solutions?

With so much plastic already in the world’s seas and ocean there are major concerns that the damage may already be done, and measures we now take will be effective only in limiting how bad things get. There is no known way that microplastics can be removed from the sea while leaving plankton and other microscopic sea creatures (which are essential to marine life) unharmed. For this reason the only thing that we can do is reduced the amount of plastic that we put into the sea in the future.


Bacardi, US headquarters in Miami pictured right, have led a campaign to reduce the use of plastic drinking straws due to the amount which end up in the world’s seas and oceans.

There have been many successful campaigns and legislation to achieve this such as the UK government charging 5p for plastic bags which has seen the use of disposable carrier bags reduced by 85% since the charge was introduced (18), with the Marine Conservation Society stating that this has been “fantastic news for the marine environment” (19). The changing public opinion over plastic pollution can also be seen in the actions of companies which are now getting on board with campaigns aimed at reducing plastic usage. Bacardi, one of the world’s largest and most successful drinks companies, has also started its own campaign to convince people to forego the use of a plastic straw when consuming its beverages. Disposable plastic straws are the fifth most common item of ocean waste, and the United States alone disposes of enough plastic straws to fill 125 school buses to the brim with plastic straws every single day (20). Following the success of the carrier bag charge there have been plans for a similar plastic bottle tax of 20p, which can be reclaimed when the bottle is recycled (21), and calls for supermarkets to bring in plastic free aisles in supermarkets (22).

Further common sense measures to reduce the amount of plastic waste ending up in the sea range from taking proper care of waste (no overflowing bins), educating people to get rid of waste properly and punishing people who litter and fly tip to clamping down on illegal waste disposal by companies and industry. The plastics industry can also improve the safety and security of the supply chain to ensure that environmentally damaging products such as plastic nurdles do not get into the world’s seas and oceans.

The use of microbeads in cosmetic products is the aspect of plastic pollution which has gained the most media attention, with the cosmetics coming under immense pressure to stop using microbeads in its products. This led to Cosmetics Europe, the organisation which represents thousands of cosmetics manufacturers across the continent – pledging to voluntarily phase out microbeads in their wash-off products by 2020 (23).

Andrea Leadsom MP

MP Andrea Leadsom campaigned against the use of microbeads when she was Environment Secretary.

However, this was not seen as sufficient by the UK government, with countries such as Ireland and the USA bringing in bans much sooner. In Autumn 2016 the House of Commons Environmental Audit Committee recommended that a ban on cosmetic products containing microbeads should be introduced in 2017 with the then Environment Secretary Andrea Leadsom saying:

“Most people would be dismayed to know the face scrub or toothpaste they use was causing irreversible damage to the environment, with billions of indigestible plastic pieces poisoning sea creatures … adding plastic to products like face washes and body scrubs is wholly unnecessary when harmless alternatives can be used” (24).

Jennifer Aniston

Jennifer Aniston

Indeed, the tide of public opinion has turned against microbeads to such an extent that celebrities have found themselves criticised in the media for promoting products which contain microbeads. In 2016 the actress Jennifer Aniston was condemned for appearing in adverts for a facial scrub by a brand called Aveeno which is owned by Johnson and Johnson. The advert stated that the product contained “gentle exfoliators” but did not make it clear that these were plastic microbeads (25). Johnson and Johnson have pledged to remove microbeads from all of their products by the end of 2017.

Update: It is now likely that the UK will ban microbeads in cosmetic products such as toothpastes and face washes from summer 2018.

While all of this is undoubtedly good news it is important to remember that microbeads in cosmetic products are only a small proportion of the microplastic pollution in the world’s seas and oceans. There are concerns that microbeads may be getting a disproportionate amount of attention at the expense of other equally damaging forms of plastic pollution. The UK government has also began a consultation on banning microbeads from all products which are washed down the drain (26), which would cover washing powders and other household cleaning products. This would be a potentially much more significant ban as a much wider range of products used on an everyday basis by millions of people would be covered by the ban.


Some cosmetics may be exempt from the ban.

There are also concerns that certain types of plastic pollution will escape the ban. Products such as mascara, eye shadow, blusher and lipstick can include polymer type plastic which is used to add bulk or texture to the product, or to act as a binding agent. Ultimately these plastics end up being washed down the drain and end up in the seas and oceans as another form of microplastic pollution. However, major cosmetics companies such as Max Factor and L’Oreal claim that these types of plastic should not count as a microplastic, and these products may therefore continue to be sold, with the ban only applying to the microbeads in wash-off cosmetic products such as shower gels and face washes (27).

Technological Solutions

Environmentally-minded consumers can also use technology to help them avoid choosing products which contain microbeads. The Beat the Microbead smart phone app has been developed by the North Sea Foundation and the Plastic Soup Foundation. This app allows consumers to scan the barcode of any cosmetic product and the app will then tell them if that product contains microbeads. Technology and nature together may also offer a solution, or at least a way of reducing the plastic problem in the world’s oceans. Scientists at Utrecht University in the Netherlands have identified several species of fungi which are capable of surviving on a diet consisting entirely of plastic, while researchers in China, Japan and the USA have been working to identify species of worms, larvae and bacteria which can also digest plastic pollution (28). While these organisms will naturally consume only a small amount of plastic it may be possible to genetically engineer them to consume plastics faster. There is the hope that one day worms, fungi, bacteria or larvae can be harnessed to consume plastic out of the world’s seas and oceans and go some way towards reducing waste plastic in the environment.

Indeed, plastic waste in the world’s seas and oceans may itself by recyclable. The cosmetics brand Head and Shoulders – itself owned by the giant US multinational company Proctor and Gamble – has made a range of shampoo bottles which are partly made from plastic recovered from a beach in France by volunteers. While only 170,000 of the special-edition bottles will be made (a tiny proportion of the company’s overall sales) it does show what can be done with plastic pollution and also demonstrates that cosmetic companies are taking the problem of ocean pollution seriously (29). Companies such as Adidas and G Star RAW have also made products which utilise recovered waste plastic.

There may be signs of a real breakthrough in plastic waste. Researchers at Warwick University in the UK have developed a process called pyrolysis which transforms waste plastics into an oil known as Plaxx (30). This oil can then be used as a fuel in heavy machinery or turned back into useful forms of plastic (31). A spin-off company called Recycling Technologies has been set up by the university in Swindon in Wiltshire and will process plastic waste from the town. It is hoped that similar plants will be set up around the UK, and potentially all around the world, with smaller versions of the technology possibly being fitted to ocean-going vessels which can then remove plastic pollution from the seas and oceans (30). Some cruise liners and US Navy vessels already utilise plasma torch technology which heats up waste plastic and allows it to be re-used (30).

Gerald R. Ford Class Aircraft Carrier

The US Navy’s new Gerald R. Ford Class supercarriers will utilise a plasma incinerator to reduce the amount of waste they produce.

Another encouraging invention comes from Boyan Slat, a Dutch citizen who came up for the idea of a vast boom 2000 metres long which can remove plastic pollution from the ocean when he was still in his teens (32). Having won multiple awards and raised over $2 million in start-up funding Slat has created the Ocean Cleanup Foundation to implement his ideas, although there has been criticisms and questions over the feasibility of his plans (33).

Kiehl's cosmetic product

A sample of an exfoliating body scrub product by the American cosmetic company Kiehl’s which contains grapefruit seeds rather than plastic microbeads.

Products containing natural, biodegradable alternatives to microbeads are also emerging onto the market. Fragments of nut shell, rice, bamboo and certain types of seeds have all successfully been used to replace microbeads in cosmetic products (34), but as these are natural ingredients they do not cause on-going damage to the marine environment.

The Future

Encouraging progress has been made in pressuring brands to change their products to remove microplastics and the success of such campaigns can be seen in the way governments have moved to ban microbeads from products on a much shorter timescale than the manufacturers would have liked. However, even a total ban on would only go a relatively small way to solving the problem as many other forms of plastic pollution make their way into the world’s seas and oceans, eventually being broken down into microplastics. The technological advances mentioned above may provide the answer to the issue of plastic pollution, and there is certainly now huge political pressure on governments across the world to begin to work towards a solution to the issue of plastic pollution in the oceans.

Nadya Hutagalung and Jack Johnson

Celebrities such as Indonesian-Australian model Nadya Hutagalung and US singer Jack Johnson have backed the UN’s campaign to reduce plastic pollution.

In early 2017 the United Nations announced that it would pressurise governments to reduce the use of plastics and end the worst forms of plastic pollution, with the UN’s Clean Seas campaign being launched with the aim of significantly reducing plastic pollution on an international basis by 2022 (35).

Additional Reading

Oceanographer and sailor Charles J. Moore was instrumental in bringing the issues of plastic pollution in the oceans to a wider audience. His famous book Plastic Ocean can be purchased on Amazon by clicking here.

In 2016 a feature length documentary film called A Plastic Ocean was released. Filmed over four years in twenty different locations this film studies the ways in which plastics have ended up in the sea, and what the impact of having a plastic filled ocean will be. Watch the trailer by clicking here. The film can be streamed on iTunes Movies or Amazon Video. Another documentary film, the 30-minute long The Smog of the Sea also addresses the same issues and can be viewed on YouTube by clicking here.

Please note: This article was written and uploaded in February 2017 and updated in 2018. Any developments which have taken place after this date will not be reflected in the article.


1.National Geographic – Eight Million Tons of Plastic Dumped in Ocean Every Year
2. The Washington Post – By 2050, there will be more plastic than fish in the world’s oceans, study says
3. The Guardian – ‘Great Pacific garbage patch’ far bigger than imagined, aerial survey shows
4. The Daily Mail – Hidden in your daily facial scrub: Up to 94,500 tiny microbeads which are deadly to marine life
5. The Daily Mail – Is Your Fleece Killing Marine Life?, 3/7/16.
6. The Guardian – Single clothes wash may release 700,000 microplastic fibres, study finds
7. The Sunday Times, The War on Face Wipes, 30/10/2016
8. BBC News – Plastic ‘nurdles’ found littering UK beaches
9. UK Business Insider – By 2050, the oceans could have more plastic than fish
10. The Guardian, Fish Mistaking Plastic Debris in Ocean for Food, Study Finds, 16/8/17.
11. Environmental Science & Technology Journal – Effect of microplastic on the gills of the Shore Crab Carcinus maenas
12. Nature – Anthropogenic debris in seafood: Plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption
13. Environmental Pollution Journal – Microplastics in bivalves cultured for human consumption
14. The Guardian – Fish for dinner? Your seafood might come with a side of plastic
15. The Daily Mail – A poison worse than any spill: How a third of fish caught in the English Channel have microplastics in their guts
16. Nature – Microplastics in Arctic polar waters: the first reported values of particles in surface and sub-surface samples
17. The Mirror, Scientists ‘Astonished’ to Find Micro-Plastics Polluting Oceans at a Depth of 6,000ft, 4/10/16.
18. The Guardian – England’s plastic bag usage drops 85% since 5p charge introduced
19. Sky.com – Plastic bag tax ‘fantastic news for marine wildlife’
20. Bacardi Limited Website – Bacardi Initiates a ‘No-Straw’ Movement to Reduce Waste
21. The Telegraph – Plastic bottle ‘tax’ could be introduced to tackle waste
22. Sky.com – Supermarkets urged to have plastic-free aisles
23. Daily Mail – No more plastic in shower gels and face scrubs: Cosmetics firms pledge to remove harmful microbeads to protect the oceans
24. BBC News – Plastic microbeads to be banned by 2017, UK government pledges
25. Daily Mail – Jennifer Aniston ‘should blush with shame’ over facial scrub adverts
26. The Guardian – Ministers explore applying microbead ban to household products
27. Daily Mail – Now ban the microbeads in make-up: Controls on ‘plastic poison’ in toothpaste and body scrubs MUST be extended to cover cosmetics too
28. The Guardian – Could a new plastic-eating bacteria help combat this pollution scourge?
29. The Guardian – Shampoo bottle made from ocean plastics hailed as ‘technological breakthrough’
30. The Telegraph – Our seas have become a plastic graveyard – but can technology turn the tide?
31. Plasticstoday.com – Plaxx, a clean substitute for fossil-based heavy fuel oil?
32. New Scientist – Could a vast rubber boom clean up tonnes of ocean plastic?
33. The Guardian – Too good to be true? The Ocean Cleanup Project faces feasibility questions
34. Huffington Post – Why Use Microbeads When The Alternatives Are Better?
35. Fish2Fork.com – United Nations bids to stop plastic pollution killing marine wildlife


Share this page: