Recent years have seen bass in the headlines of mainstream media in the UK and the rest of Europe due to an alarming decline in the numbers of this species. This has led to Europe-wide measures being put in place to try to restore the breeding stock of this species and seen some unprecedented restrictions on both anglers and the commercial fishing industry. This article explores the impact which the changes in laws and legislation has had on angling and the other groups with an interest in this species.
Bass – A Species Which is Increasing in Demand
In 2013 a stock assessment by the International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (ICES) – a powerful independent organisation which advises the European Union on all matters relating to marine science – found that bass stocks were at their lowest for twenty years (1). This was hardly surprising as bass have been growing in demand as a table fish with celebrity chefs increasingly using bass in their recipes (2), leading to a huge rise in catches and consumption. Having been ignored by both consumers and commercial fishermen for decades, bass has become a hugely important commercial fish in the 2000s. Between 2005 and 2008 sales of bass more than trebled in the UK (3). It should also be pointed out that bass have become an increasingly fashionable species for recreational anglers to catch. The sales of lures and fishing tackle specifically designed to catch bass has increased, and fishing magazines are giving an increasing amount of pages over to bass fishing.
The rising demand for this species has had the effect of rising the price of bass and making it an increasingly attractive species for commercial fishermen to target, especially when the quotas of other highly commercial species such as cod and haddock had been reduced. A further bonus for fishermen switching to bass was that as a non-quota species there was little to no restrictions on how much bass could be caught (4). Inevitably this led to the significant decline in the numbers of this species which made headlines after the ICES report in 2013. Indeed, ICES reported that levels of bass were at the risk of becoming so low that they would fall below the level where reproductive capacity became severely inhibited (5). In other words stocks were close to becoming so reduced that they might not be able to recover.
Action to Protect Bass
While all interested parties (governments, commercial fishermen, anglers, conservationists and so on) believed that it was essential to take action to halt the decline there was a huge amount of disagreement over exactly what should be done. One measure suggested by the European Fisheries Council was that recreational anglers should be limited to catching a single bass per day. This led to a furious reaction from angling groups such as B.A.S.S. (Bass Anglers Sportfishing Society) which saw it as recreational anglers paying the price for commercial over-exploitation. Angling groups blamed commercial fishermen and saw limits on commercial catches as the answer to restoring stocks. In the end no agreement could be reached and little was done throughout 2014, meaning the stocks of European bass continued to decline.
The UK government was one of the most vocal in demanding action the European Commission (the executive branch of the European Union which carried out the day to day business of the EU) finally acted. Pair trawling for bass in the English Channel was banned for the breeding season in January to April 2015. Mostly carried out by French vessels, pair trawling is monumentally damaging involves dragging a vast net between two boats and specifically targeted bass as they gathered to spawn (6), effectively wiping out huge numbers of the breeding stock of bass. It is also linked with a very high dolphin and porpoise bycatch (7). This measure was (eventually) brought in with the agreement of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Ireland, but also saw another measure brought in alongside which limited anglers to retaining three bass per angler per day (8). This was due to their calculations that recreational angling for bass throughout Europe accounted for a quarter of the ‘impact’ on this species, and it was therefore justified and reasonable to restrict recreational anglers as well. Reaction within the recreational angling community across the UK was mixed, with some seeing it as a fair measure to ensure that bass stocks were restored, while others saw it as deeply unjust and setting a dangerous precedent for recreational angling.
Bass in 2016: Catch and Release Only for Anglers, Gill Netter’s Quota Increased
Talks between the EU member states continued throughout 2015, and towards the end of that year the new plan to restore bass stocks was announced which superseded the previous regulations. There would be further limits on commercial fishing for bass including a ban on fishing for bass in the spawning season in February and March, and in the second half of the year catch limits would apply to all vessels (9). However, anglers were shocked at the far-reaching nature of the measures which were brought in on recreational fishing. Anglers would be banned from retaining any bass at all from January to June 2016 and then limited to one bass per angler per day from July to December of that year (10). Penalty failing to comply with the regulations was an unlimited fine and potential confiscation of fishing gear. In addition to this the minimum size for all recreational and commercially caught bass would also be raised to 42cm (11).
Angling groups were furious with the regulations with the Angling Trust running an article accusing the UK fisheries minister George Eustice of caving in to commercial pressure by making bass catch and release for half of 2016 (12). Tensions were further heightened when it emerged that the highly damaging gill net fishery was being referred to as “low impact” by Mr. Eustice and had actually had its quota increased from 1000kg per month to 1300kg (12). Altogether the new measures would only reduce bass mortality by around 20%, when ICES figures had stated that mortality should have been cut by 80 to 90% in order to see a meaningful recovering of bass stocks (12). The overall feeling from the recreational fishing community was that their fishing – which had the least impact on bass stocks and generates the most money for the economy – had been subject to Draconian restrictions while commercial fishing industry had been let off relatively lightly. Only trawling and seining for bass (which only accounts for around 15% of catches) had been subject to meaningful restrictions, while the highly damaging gill net fishery had actually had the amount of bass they were able to keep increased.
While the three bass per angler per day limit had received a mixed reception from anglers the total ban on retaining bass for six months followed by a restriction of one fish per angler for another six months was widely condemned by the sea angling community. Many saw the new legislation as discriminating against anglers in favour of the commercial fishing industry (13). In particular the increasing quota of the gill net fishery angered anglers who could not understand how this highly damaging form of commercial fishing was being allowed to expand and increase catches when anglers were being told that bass stocks were in such decline that recreational fishing had to be severely limited. Anglers found significant support for their cause. North Cornwall MP Scott Mann who led a three hour backbench debate on this issue in the House of Commons, stating:
I lead this debate on sea bass conservation not just as an MP, but as an angler … I see recreational sea anglers and fishermen as part of a collective community. Both need healthy fish stocks. Both activities benefit the economy in different ways and in differing amounts and both have the same passion for catching fish. The current situation we find ourselves in is grossly unfair on anglers. Both fishermen and anglers want to see bass stocks preserved and grown, but one party shouldn’t have to suffer when they actually have very little impact on stocks (14).
Following this debate a demonstration was organised by the Cornish Federation of Sea Anglers in association with the Angling Trust and the Bass Anglers’ Sportfishing Society. The demonstration saw over two hundred anglers march to the constituency office of George Eustice in the Camborne in Cornwall. Unfortunately, Mr. Eustice had informed the organisers of the demonstration that he would not be at his office on that day. Instead he released a statement in which he said that he had discussed the issue with Angling Trust and pointed out that due to restrictions on commercial fishing anglers were the only group who had been able to fish for bass in two months of 2016, albeit on a catch and release basis only.
Anglers who were worried that the restrictions on bass would set a precedent on limiting the species anglers could catch were handed more evidence in a government-backed campaign. Looks Fishy is an ongoing-campaign to clamp down on the sale of illegally caught fish. It is backed by the National Federation of Fishermen’s Organisations (NFFO), the British Hospitality Association and the Angling Trust. However, an article on the NFFO website states that one of the answers to the selling of illegally caught fish could be “bag limits on recreational catches of all affected species.” While there is not yet any suggestion of this going forward many anglers who have seen bass fishing limited to catch and release and then retaining a single fish could be forgiven for fearing that similar restrictions could be placed on cod, mackerel, plaice or any other species which was at risk of being sold or traded illegally (15).
Brexit and the Possibility of a Total Bass Ban
While the catch and release only restriction was still in force for anglers the people of Britain went to the polls in late June 2016 and voted by margin of 52% to 48% to leave the European Union. This threw Britain into a period of political turmoil with the Prime Minister David Cameron announcing that he was standing down just hours after the result of the referendum was confirmed (16). While this will not have an immediate impact on UK anglers, commercial fishermen and fish stocks generally (the process of leaving the EU will take a minimum of two years) it will have significant changes in the medium to long term. All of the laws and legislation discussed above are agreed on a European Union wide basis as fishing is one of the areas where sovereignty is pooled and made on a Europe-wide basis. Once Britain has left the EU the country will be free to make its own decisions about bass stocks within British waters and how they should be treated and managed (assuming that the UK does not decide to maintain the status quo on fishing rights in Brexit negotiations). Exactly how this will translate into protection for bass stocks and limits and restrictions on bass fishing in UK waters will not be known for some time, but it does mean that Europe-wide legislation may not apply to the UK, and instead the democratically elected government of Britain could be responsible for managing and maintaining bass stocks in UK waters – a significant change from the way these issues are handled now.
Further important news emerged in 2016. ICES put forward the advice that, despite the limits, restrictions and legislation which had been brought in, bass stocks were still not recovering. They therefore recommended a total ban on all forms of recreational and commercial fishing for bass in 2017 (17), pointing out that even if bass fishing is completely stopped in 2017 stocks will still be critically low in 2018. Representatives of the commercial fishing industry stated that they were not convinced that the information ICES was acting on was up to date, and Malcolm Gilbert of the Cornish Federation of Sea Anglers said that if a total ban was brought in then sea anglers would have to accept it, but it must also apply to commercial fishermen as well (18).
There is no doubt that Europe’s bass stocks are in big trouble and major change is needed in order to bring about recovery. The consensus within the recreational angling community is that anglers have been forced to endure unfair restrictions on their fishing due to the unsustainable fishing from commercial fishing industry. Commercial fishermen’s organisations continue to argue that they are receptive to change but are unhappy with, and resistant to, many of the measures which have been put forward to rebuild bass stocks (18).
B.A.S.S. and the Angling Trust put out a joint statement which stated that if a moratorium on bass fishing is put in place for 2017 it must be applied to all forms of commercial fishing for bass, with no exemptions for “low impact” gill netting. They also suggested that bass could become a recreational/sustainable hook and line commercial species only (19), although such as move would be fiercely resisted by the vast majority of the commercial fishing industry. Writing in a guest post on this website Chris Williams of the New Economics Foundation put forward ideas to restore bass stocks. These included seasonal and spatial closures, moving trawlers on from areas once it is clear bass are being caught, restrictions on netting for bass and raising the awareness of consumers that wild caught bass is not a sustainable fish to eat (20). Read the full article by Chris Williams on this website by clicking here. There has also been a move from the Marine Stewardship Council (MCS) to begin a boycott of wild caught bass. The MCS stated that farmed bass was abundant and other species such as mackerel or hake could be used as alternatives to take the pressure off bass stocks (21).
No Total Ban in 2017
In December 2016 the European Union’s Agriculture and Fisheries Council announced its measures for bass fishing in 2017. The idea of making bass a species which can only be caught by commercial fishermen using hooks and line was largely been taken up, with the Agriculture and Fisheries Council stating that there will be “no fishing for sea bass by commercial vessels targeting sea bass, except for long lines [and] pole and lines (22).” These vessels had a maximum catch limit of ten tons per year, and had to observe a period when fishing for bass is banned during February and March 2017, as this is the main spawning time for bass. Fixed gill nets were not allowed to specifically target bass but could retain 250kg to cover “unavoidable bycatch” while demersal trawlers and seiners could retain up to 400kg of bass bycatch (22). The Council also stated that recreational anglers “are asked to practise a catch and release fishery in the first half of the year and to limit their catches to one fish per day in the second half of 2017” (22), the same restrictions which anglers faced in 2016.
The Council stated that these measures were designed to protect sea bass by stopping commercial vessels from specifically targeting this species and only allowing them to keep a a proportion of bass they inadvertently caught as bycatch. The Council said that these measures were designed to allow artisanal hook and line fishermen (who may have no other species to catch) to allow to continue to catch bass, while other sectors of the commercial fishing industry can no longer target bass. All types of commercial fishing must observe the two month ban and recreational anglers will have the same restrictions that they had in 2016. The Council added that the 1.3 million recreational anglers in France and the 800,000 in the UK “added a lot of value” and that “it is … vital to rebuild sea bass for the benefit of both commercial fishermen and recreational anglers (22).”
The plans for a compete bass ban in 2017 had clearly not transpired, with the EU’s Agriculture and Fisheries Council attempting to keep all parties happy while simultaneously trying to rebuild bass stocks. Commercial fishermen had vociferously argued against banning gill nets from targeting bass (22), and appeared relatively happy with the large bycatch allowances they had been granted for both gill nets and trawlers, arguing that a total ban on keeping bass would only lead to high levels of discarded bycatch (23). One of the rumours that recreational anglers would be limited to catching ten bass a month has not been imposed with a continuation of the catch and release for the first half of the year and retaining a single bass per day for the rest of 2017. This will be disappointing for the charter boat sector, which has seen revenues badly hit by the restrictions on retaining bass (25).
There was controversy over the way in which the English and Welsh governments interpreted the new bycatch regulations on commercial fishing for bass. The limits of 250kg of bass for demersal trawlers and 400kg for seiners are strictly for genuine unavoidable bycatch only, but the fisheries ministers in both London and Cardiff appeared to be interpreting this as a monthly catch allowance when they publicly referred to the figures as a ‘provision’ for bass (26). The governments of the two nations eventually released a statement clarifying that the allowances were for bycatch only and commercial demersal trawlers and seiners could not target specifically target bass (27).
Bass Regulations from 2018: Initially Catch and Release Only for Anglers
In late 2017 there was speculation that all recreational fishing for bass would be banned for 2018, after the European Commission proposed to ministers that anglers should not be able to retain a single bass in 2018 and be banned from targeted fishing for bass for the first six months of the year. Although details of exactly how this would be enforced were never made clear this would presumably would have meant that anyone who was using lures or tackle to specifically target bass would be committing an offence, even if they released any bass they caught. This would have provoked outrage in the angling community as charter boat skippers, bass guides and tackle shops and websites would have their livelihoods seriously affected (or in some cases completely gone out of business), but some commercial fishing for bass would be allowed to continue.
Bass fishing groups, recreational anglers and representatives of the sea fishing tackle industry lobbied MPs and launched petitions to ensure that anglers voices were heard. In the end bass angling was not banned for 2018, but anglers were only allowed to fish for bass on a catch and release basis for the whole year (28). Restrictions on commercial fishing for bass also continued with a closed period of two months for commercial bass fishing imposed in the spawning season (29). As well as this commercial fishermen who used hook and line to catch bass had the amount of bass they could catch halved from 1000kg a month to 500kg, while commercial trawlers could not specifically target bass and had the amount of accidentally caught bass they could retain reduced 3% of their catch to 1% (30). Commercial fishermen continued to complain about the restrictions on bass fishing, making the point that the limits on the number of bass which can be retained lead to large amounts of bass being discarded as bycatch. A group of Plymouth fishermen claimed that they had thrown away £120,000 worth of dead bass back into the sea in a week, and some vessels had discarded £23,000 of bass in a single day (31).
In an interview with the BBC Radio 4’s consumer affairs programme You and Yours then fisheries minister George Eustice defended the new measures for 2018, and said that they were stronger as the restrictions imposed on commercial and recreational anglers for 2016 and 2017 had not done enough to reduce bass catches, as the number of bass caught had only gone down 17% rather than the expected 50% (30). He also stated that the European Commission had survey data that said that recreational angling was having a bigger impact than thought, but the government was “a little bit sceptical” about this data and had asked to have it reviewed, and that the European Commission was “overstating” the impact of recreational fishing. He also confirmed that spot checks on charter boats by the MMO (Marine Management Organisation) and IFCAs (Inshore Fisheries Conservation Authorities) across the UK would be used to ensure that anglers were not retaining bass in 2018. In terms of Brexit he said the promise to increase quotas for commercial fishermen would only be implemented if it was within safe biological limits, meaning that this would not apply to bass until their numbers had increased (30).
Anglers Allowed to Retain Bass from October 2018
After much speculation during the summer it was eventually confirmed by the EU in September that the regulations would be changed to allow anglers to retain a single bass per angler per day from 1st October to the 31st December 2018. This applied to both shore and boat anglers (32). The change, which was welcomed by anglers and angling groups, was due to bass stocks being higher than ICES initially believed, and new research showing that bass which were caught and released by anglers had a higher survival rate than previously believed.
However, the regulations for 2019 – which were published on the official government website in January of that year – are more complicated. In January, February and March and then November and December anglers will only be permitted to fish for bass on a catch and release basis. For the rest of the year anglers will be able to retain one bass (as long as it is above the minimum size limit of 42cm) per angler per day.
Clearly the European Commission is taking the issue of declining bass numbers seriously and attempting to take action to rebuild stocks. However, the pressure from commercial fishermen to continue to catch this species in high numbers, along with anglers who do not see why they should be stopped fishing for this species, means that the EU has a near-impossible balancing act to perform.
The plight of bass has also ignited a conflict between the recreational and commercial fishing sectors, with both groups determined that the other should shoulder their share of the restrictions on fishing for this species. While anglers have not had bass fishing banned they have seen the fact that they can only fish for bass on a catch and release basis for six months of 2016 and 2017 and for most of 2018 as a Draconian measure, relative to the small number of bass that anglers retain. Commercial fishermen, of course, will use the familiar argument that they are fishing for bass for a living and not a hobby and therefore should have the priority to catch this species.
It will take time before we see if the European Union’s restrictions and regulations on bass fishing for both commercial and recreational fishermen have been enough, and in the coming years it is certain that any further restrictions will always be controversial.
This article will be updated as more information on bass stocks and fishing comes to light.
- Harvey, F. Sea Bass Stocks Fall to Their Lowest in 20 Years, The Guardian, 18/9/2013.
- Europe is Wiping Out its Seabass Population, Thanks in Part to Trendy Chefs – Quartz, 19/9/2013.
- Sea Bass: The Superstar of the Seas – The Independent, 18/3/2008.
- Our scientific programme on bass and other fish: a personal perspective by Michel Kaise – Bangor University Fisheries and Conservation Group.
- Protecting Sea Bass – European Commission [Link no longer active].
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- Dead Dolphins Delivered to French Government – Greenpeace, 17/5/2005 [Link no longer active].
- The Most Significant Change in Sea Angling History – fishingtails.co.uk, 3/9/2015
- New commercial and recreational fishing restrictions for Bass in 2016 – gov.uk, 30/12/2015.
- Bass Fishing: Catch limits, closures and minimum size – gov.uk, 3/2/2016.
- EU raises minimum size of northern sea bass for better protection of the stocks – European Commission, 2/7/2015
- Fishing Minister Accused of ‘Shameful Conservation Con Trick’ Over Bass Stocks – Angling Trust, 17/12/2015.
- Anglers ‘Disgusted’ by New EU Sea Bass Laws – Rye and Battle Observer, 7/1/2016
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- Tackling the Threat Posed by Unlicenced Fishing – NFFO, 13/04/2016 [Link no longer active].
- Brexit: David Cameron to Quit After UK Votes to Leave the EU – BBC News, 24/6/2016.
- Knapton, S. Sea Bass Shortage Could Bring Complete Fishing Ban in 2017, The Daily Telegraph, 1/7/2016
- Bass Conservation Measures NFFO Position Paper June 2015 – 4/6/2016
- Angling Trust And BASS Statement On ICES Advice On Bass For 2017 – Bass Anglers’ Sportfishing Society
- Brexit Won’t Bring Back the Bass – Williams, C. britishseafishing.co.uk
- Pledge to Boycott Sales of Seabass Caught in the Wild is Launched – Fish2Fork.com, 13/10/2016 [Link no longer active].
- Sea Bass Q&A, available at www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2016/…/qa-sea-bass-dec-2016_pdf/
- Bass: Ban on Gill Net Fisheries “Misguided and Harmful” – NFFO, 29/11/2016
- December Council Outcomes – NFFO, 15/12/2016
Anglers Demand ‘Fairer Deal’ on Sea Bass Catches – Plymouth Herald, 19/11/2016 [Link no longer active].
- English and Welsh Governments Told to Stop Misrepresenting New Measures to Protect Seabass – The Angling Trust, 13/1/17.
- Bass Rules Clarified by Westminster and Cardiff, The Angling Trust, 1/7/17.
- Webster, B. Anglers Told to Throw Back Sea Bass In Drive to Protect Fish Stocks, The Times, 13/12/2017.
- Council Agreement on 2018 Fishing Quotas in the Atlantic and North Sea, Europa.eu, 13/12/2017.
- You and Yours, BBC Radio 4, 15/12/2017
- Dodd, R. Fishermen ‘Have Been Forced to Throw £120k of Dead Fish Back in the Sea in a Week’, Plymouth Herald, 13/12/2017.
- Changes to Recreational Bass Restrictions from 1 October, Gov.uk, 28/9/2018.