The Mackerel War is an on-going and so far unresolved dispute between Britain (backed by the European Union and Norway) and the combined forces of Iceland and the Faroe Islands. Unlike the Cod Wars which was about territory and fishing grounds the Mackerel War is about the size of catches and quotas that countries are allowed to take from the seas within their own territory. Despite being dubbed the ‘Mackerel War’ this particular dispute has yet to see any warships mobilised or direct conflict.
The Cause of the Conflict
In the 1970s and 1980s mackerel had an image problem. People simply didn’t want to eat mackerel and preferred to stick to more established species such as cod, haddock, plaice and salmon. However, from the 1990s onwards mackerel has become increasingly popular for a number of reasons. Firstly, as it is an oily fish it is full of omega 3 fatty acids very healthy as well as being very tasty. Secondly, it is a very versatile fish that can be baked, grilled, barbecued, smoked or even served in sushi. Finally, since consumers have ignored mackerel for many years its stocks are in pretty good shape, making it a good choice for the eco-conscious buyer wanting to avoid the species that are under high commercial pressure. Also, as a pelagic (mid-water) fish it can be caught with fishing gears that do not destroy the seabed environment, making it an even better choice for the environmentally-minded consumer.
The rising value of mackerel has led to the mackerel fishing industry becoming big business – catches in Britain were worth £135 million in 2009. Previously, Britain and other European countries such as Norway fished for mackerel, while Iceland and the Faroe Islands were happy to fish for the alternative species of blue whiting. However, stocks of blue whiting have almost totally collapsed in recent years due to overfishing, meaning that Iceland and the Faroe’s vast and expensively assembled pelagic trawler fleets have been sitting idle. These two countries therefore turned their attention to mackerel in a big way – Iceland increased their national annual quota from 2000 tons in the mid-2000s to 130,000 tons in 2010 and the Faroe Islands increased theirs from 25,000 to 150,000 tons. When combined with the mackerel catch from other countries this would mean that every year 772,000 tons of mackerel were being removed from the sea, 35% more that the 570,000 tons the International Council for the Exploration of the Seas recommends as a safe and sustainable limit. Iceland and the Faroe Islands claimed that global warming meant that mackerel had migrated further north and were more plentiful in their waters which justified the higher quota, and all the additional fishing was within their EEZ. However, this failed to address that fact that their higher quotas were imposed unilaterally and ran counter to the Europe-wide agreements brought in by the Common Fisheries Policy. Many commentators have pointed out that since Iceland was made effectively bankrupt as a country following the 2008 world financial crisis it has returned to traditional industries, and upping the quota for mackerel was a logical next step in this process.
The Conflict Escalates
Britian, Norway and Ireland were furious as – in a very rare example of farsightedness from the commercial fishing industry – they had been fishing for mackerel within safe biological limits. North Atlantic mackerel had been fully certified as sustainable by the MSC (Marine Stewardship Council) but the massive increases in Icelanic and Faroese quotas would result in the loss of this status. In August 2010 Norway responded by closing all its ports to Icelandic and Faroe Islands trawlers, while similar action was taken at many Scottish ports. This action resulted in the Faroese trawler, the Jupiter being unable to enter Peterhead harbour in Aberdeen by a line of Scottish trawlers that blocked the entrance to the port, while several dozen fishermen protested from the land, watched over by a police presence. The Jupiter had been planning on unloading its catch of 1100 tons of mackerel but was forced to turn around and return to the Faroe Islands. The ship’s skipper Emil Pedersen later claimed that the action had cost him and his company £400,000.
Speaking to the Guardian, Ian Gatt, the leader of the Scottish Pelagic Fishermen’s Association, explained why the action had been taken by the fishermen: “For our guys, it really was rubbing salt in the wound for that boat to come down and say they wanted to land fish in Scotland. Over our dead bodies. … they won’t be getting the famed warm Scottish welcome.” He went on to say that Scottish mackerel quotas could be halved because massive quota increases Iceland and the Faroe Islands had awarded themselves. This would result in thousands of jobs in Scotland being put at risk, plus all the excess mackerel on the market would drive down the price of the fish. Furthermore, the hard-won MSC accreditation would be lost, meaning that conservation-minded consumers would turn away from mackerel, and one of Europe’s few sustainable fisheries would be put at risk. “Not only us, but everyone who has got the MSC certification is going to lose it – at one stroke” Gatt added.
No Resolution in Sight
Talks aimed at resolving the Mackerel War have so far failed. The talks that followed the blocking of the Jupiter at Peterhead harbour but amounted to nothing, while there were high hopes that a three-day meeting in Oslo between Iceland, the Faroes, Norway and the EU would lead to a resolution but this also ended in deadlock. The situation was then further inflamed with Iceland again upping its quota from 130,000 in 2010 to 146,818 in 2011. The EU has condemned Iceland and the Faroe Islands and there is belief that Iceland’s bid for full EU membership may be negatively affected by their conduct in the Mackerel War. Iceland and the Faroe Islands continue to maintain that mackerel are abundant in their waters, and that the rest of Europe must share the quotas more equally.
Loss of MSC Status
In March 2012 the inevitable happened and the MSC announced that any North Sea or North Atlantic mackerel caught after 31 March would no longer be allowed to carry Marine Stewardship Council accreditation as they no longer viewed the mackerel fisheries in these waters as sustainable. Their reason for this was that mackerel catches would exceed 900,000 tons in the near future which is at least 260,000 tons over recommended scientific guidelines. This affects fishing communities in Scotland and northern England, as well as the much smaller and much more environmentally friendly handline fishing industry in south-west England. In addition to this fisheries in Ireland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands would all lose MSC accreditation for mackerel. In a European fisheries meeting in Brussels in March 2012 the European Commission, under pressure from Ireland and Britain, said it planned to speed up trade sanctions against Iceland due to their “illegal” mackerel catches. Politicians, such as Ireland’s Minister for Agriculture, Food and the Marine stating “this mackerel crisis is about four issues: jobs, economics, sustainability and fairness. The EU cannot accept the Faroe Islands’ and Iceland’s unjustifiable and unsustainable fishing of mackerel stocks.”
In February 2013 Iceland agreed to reduce its quota of mackerel from 145,227 tons in 2012 to 123,182 tons in 2013 – a 15% reduction, and also stated that they may be willing to reduce the quota further if other European countries also did the same. However, the EU nations and Norway were unimpressed with this attempted olive branch, with Ian Gatt stating: “[It] is an inescapable fact that Iceland is still taking an excessively large share” and pointing out that even with the 15% reduction in quota Iceland was still taking almost a quarter of the total mackerel catches for itself. Iceland and the Faroes appear unwilling to back down in their claims to a larger quota of mackerel, while the EU and Norway continue to claim that the unilateral increases of quota are unsustainable, and sanctions – such as a ban on landing fish at any EU or Norwegian port – could be imposed against Iceland and the Faroes. Talks are due to continue throughout 2013.
Update: In March 2014 it appeared that the Mackerel War may be coming to some kind of a conclusion. It was reported by the BBC, Scotland’s Daily Record and other new outlets that an agreement had been reached that would see the mackerel quota in the North East Atlantic shared out in the following way:
- Norway & EU Nations – 71.8%
- Iceland & Russia – 15.6%
- Faroe Islands – 12.6%
While the decision means that there is now an agreement over the future of commercial mackerel fishing. However, not all parties were happy with Scottish commercial fishermen outraged that their quota was being reduced while the actions of the Faroe Islands had seen their quota increased. Despite these objections the agreement appears set to go ahead and some form of management is returning to mackerel stocks in European waters.